How does LSD induce short-term psychosis but long-term optimism?

 

 

 

 

 

when most people think of LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­the image that comes to mind is hallucinating hippies at Woodstock, but the drug’s original use was psychotherapeutic. As early as the 1960s, researchers showed that LSD reduces depression, anxiety and pain in patients with advanced cancer, and recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in the drug’s beneficial effects. In 2014, Swiss psychiatrist Peter Gasser published the results of a study showing that  LSD could alleviate the symptoms of severe anxiety disorder. And a 2016 study from Imperial College London showed that LSD could increase levels of optimism and openness for extended periods of time.

The LSD story goes back to Albert Hofmann, a Swiss chemist who first synthesised the compound in 1938. Hofmann accidentally discovered its hallucinogenic effects after ingesting 250 μg (a very large dose!) before his evening commute home. Being the good scientist that he was, he recorded a detailed account of his experience in his notebook. His initial, paranoia-filled reaction was followed the next day by a blissful experience, in which ‘everything glistened, and sparkled in a fresh light’.

It was this final, uplifting insight that the researchers at Imperial set out to re-explore in rigorous fashion, starting with 20 participants recruited by word-of-mouth.  These subjects were all over the age of 21, had no history of psychiatric illness, and reported at least one previous experience with a hallucinogen like magic mushrooms or LSD – the last requirement implemented to minimise adverse responses to the drug. Each subject visited the testing centre twice: once to receive LSD (75 μg lower than the dose taken by recreational users) and once to receive a placebo, though the order in which these individuals received the LSD was random.

Much like Hofmann himself, test subjects reported feeling the effect of the LSD as quickly as ten minutes after the infusion, with the experience lasting for nearly eight hours in all. Several hours into the dosing, they were asked to answer a series of questions regarding their psychological wellbeing. Participants remained in the research centre for the remainder of the day with a psychiatrist present until they were functioning normally. In order to determine longer-term effects, they filled out the same questionnaires two weeks later.

Shortly after taking the drug, participants who received LSD reported an increase in psychosis-like symptoms, including visual hallucinations, spiritual experiences and paranoia. It was an outcome the researchers had expected. But interestingly, those given LSD were more likely to feel positive, and even ‘blissful’ emotions, as opposed to the negative and ‘anxious’ feelings sometimes associated with psychedelic drugs. What was even more striking was that two weeks after taking LSD, these individuals reported increased optimism and openness, making them more creative and curious, as compared with those who received the placebo.

How can a drug that creates a temporary psychosis lead to such pronounced long-term optimism? This is a mostly unanswered question, but researchers think it has something to do with the serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR). This receptor is expressed all over the brain, particularly in regions associated with cognitive functions and social interactions. Stimulation of this receptor has been directly linked to cognitive flexibility, enhanced imagination and creative thinking. Disorders associated with variants of the 5-HT2AR include schizophrenia, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder – in other words, a panoply of psychiatric illness. It turns out that LSD functions by binding to and stimulating 5-HT2AR in the cerebral cortex, which is thought to regulate an enzyme called phospholipase C, and eventually leads to psychoactive effects. In fact,blockage of this receptor has been linked to a remediation of the hallucinatory effects of LSD in rats.

The precise biology behind LSD’s transformational potential remains a mystery. But researchers at Imperial suggest that once LSD binds to the receptor, it’s possible that the initial ‘blast’ of stimulation results in more intense, acute psychotic-like symptoms, whereas the longer-term effects produce a ‘loosening’ of network dynamics, and a general increase in optimism and wellbeing.

No one is suggesting that you illegally consume LSD to increase long-term optimism, but the study raises important questions. Could LSD one day be used to treat maladies such as major depressive disorder? Would the short-term psychological discomfort of giving an individual therapeutic LSD be worth the potential long-term benefits? Would the positive effects of LSD persist longer than two weeks? What is the physiological cascade that begins with LSD binding to 5-HT2AR activation and ends with psychological effects such as increased optimism? Is there a way to synthesise a compound that would take advantage of the beneficial aspects of LSD, while minimising the negative effects? There’s only one way to find out – more scientific experiments!

Harrow schoolboy killed by one punch after shouting ‘one day you’ll work for me’ at Malia club promoter

 

 

 

 

 

AHarrow schoolboy shouted “one day you’ll work for me” at a club promoter who then killed him with a single punch during a drunken holiday fight, a coroner heard.

Archie Lloyd was on the penultimate day of an Interrail holiday celebrating the end of his A-Level exams with four friends when he got into an argument outside a nightclub in the Greek resort of Malia.

Earlier, Mr Lloyd and best friend Andy Hutchinson had obstructed two women and club promoter Sebastian Trabucatti from riding their mopeds past them, the hearing

Mr Hutchinson told Winchester Coroner’s Court his friend yelled “one day you’ll work for me” seconds before he was floored. One of the two girls on mopeds shouted “you deserved that”, the hearing was told.

Harrow pupil Archie Lloyd was celebrating the end of his A-Levl exams with four friends when he was struck by a club promoter following an angry exchange in the early hours of August 6 last yearCREDIT: PA

Mr Lloyd was tended to “for three minutes” by medics before being given the all-clear, leaving Mr Hutchinson and others to take him back to their villa in the Sissi region.

Security guards told Greek police the 18-year-old’s friends refused to let him go to hospital after he fell against the curb outside the Cloud Nine venue.

Mr Hutchinson said he was so concerned for his friend that he sought a second medical opinion when they got home, but the telephone number they were given did not reply.

The friends put gifted sportsman Mr Lloyd in the recovery position and fell asleep at around 7am. However, they woke at midday and discovered blood on Mr Lloyd’s pillow, who was unresponsive.

A pathologist estimated the teenager died at around 9am. They were due to fly home to London the following day.

During the inquest, Mr Hutchinson described how the “10-second” altercation began when the quad bike riders sounded their horns loudly while he and Mr Lloyd walked towards the taxi rank to go home.

But after they told them to “f*** off” the promoter got off his bike and pushed him three times, forcing him to the ground.

He said Mr Lloyd might have felt bad for failing to intervene so shouted “one day you’ll work for me” at the alleged attacker.

Mr Hutchinson said: “Archie started to walk off. The man walked towards him. In a split second I saw one of the women raise her hands and point to Archie, she said: ‘You deserved that.’

“Archie was on the pavement with his prone body partly laid on the road.

“The man and the two women rode off.”

Wiping tears from his eyes while giving evidence, Mr Hutchinson said his friend did not speak again after hitting the floor. He denied that they had stopped him getting medical attention.

The court heard Mr Trabucatti was invited to attend the inquest but declined.

He told police at the time: “I’m sorry about what happened to the young man but do not consider myself responsible for his death.”

The court heard Mr Trabucatti has been charged with manslaughter in Greece but has yet to enter a plea. A trial would likely be held next year.

The court heard Mr Lloyd suffered a swelling to the brain and a haemorrhage due to a fractured skull.

Pathologist Adnan Al-Badri told the hearing there was a chance the keen sportsman would have survived if he received hospital attention in the wake of the fall.

Mr Lloyd’s mother wept as the coroner recorded a verdict of unlawful killing.

Mr Lloyd, who visited Amsterdam, Athens, Berlin, Budapest and Prague during his three-week tour of Europe, was a brother to older siblings Hector and Hugo, and to younger twin sisters, Kitty and Flora.

In a statement, the family said: “We have been left totally devastated by the loss of a wonderful brother and son but we know he will live on in all those who were ever fortunate enough to have met him.

“Archie was ready to take on the world, realising his dreams to study at university and travel when he tragically died.

“He had his whole life ahead of him when, on a harmless night out, everything went tragically wrong and so many lives have been shattered as a result.

Parents charged in death of infant found rotting in swing

 

 

 

 

Authorities have charged an Iowa couple with murder in the death of their 4-month-old son, whose maggot-infested body was found in a baby swing in the family’s home.

Twenty-year-old Cheyanne Harris and 28-year-old Zachary Koehn (kayn) were arrested Wednesday on charges of child endangerment and first-degree murder in the death of their son, Sterling Koehn. Court records don’t list attorneys for either of them. Their preliminary hearing is scheduled for Nov. 2.

PHOTO: Zachary Koehn is pictured in this undated booking photo. Authorities have charged Koehn and Cheyanne Harris with murder in the death of their 4-month-old son, whose maggot-infested body was found in a baby swing in the familys home. Chickasaw County Sheriffs Office via AP
Zachary Koehn is pictured in this undated booking photo. Authorities have charged Koehn and Cheyanne Harris with murder in the death of their 4-month-old son, whose maggot-infested body was found in a baby swing in the family’s home.

Authorities say in court records that deputies and medics called to the couple’s Alta Vista apartment on Aug. 30 found Sterling dead in the swing. A medical examiner found maggots in his clothing and skin that indicated he hadn’t had a diaper change, bath or been removed from the seat in over a week.

Police say KSU student threatened to kill classmates

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Kennesaw State University student is not allowed back on campus after police said he attacked students and threatened to kill everyone in his class.

Police told Channel 2’s Matt Johnson this whole incident took place inside the science and math building on campus.

According to the arrest warrant, 19-year-old Samuel Friedman, attacked one student and sexually harassed a female student in a math class Tuesday afternoon.

During that class, he also allegedly said “I am going to marinate on the thought of killing you all.”

“I don’t know how i would handle it as a student,” student Alexis Wall-Raven said.

The arrest warrant Johnson obtained said parents “have expressed concerns that they fear for the safety of their children.”

It also says “KSU professors have cancelled scheduled classes” in case Friedman came back.

Johnson spoke with a student who was in the class Tuesday and the student said Friedman just walked out after making threats.

“For it to be at your school is very scary,” student Fernanda Bonilla said. “Ever since like, recent events I’ve been more aware but now that this is happening on this campus, it’s just like, it’s scary.”

Kennesaw State police arrested Friedman at his Roswell home Thursday and Friedman bonded out of jail Friday afternoon.

A judge ordered that he stay away from campus as part of his bond agreement.

“Any second that can happen, just to be aware of your surroundings at all time is the best thing to do,” student Ta’Bijah Taylor said.

Mystery behind Letter X on your palms (Only 3% people in the world have it)

 

 

 

 

Its not Palmistry or any superstitious method coming from India. This is a very ancient method used by Egyptians and Greeks to foresay someone’s future. In fact last known historical record of this method is mentioned in Great Alexanders era where the royal advisers have suggested that the great Alexander will be the greatest leader in the era because he had two clearly visible letter Xs in both palms.

STI university in Moscow (Russia) revealed their latest research paper on “X palm mystery and Spirit Science formula” which studied more than 2 Mn million people across the world to understand the link between the letter X and the destiny of subjects. They reveal on their paper that everyone with letter X on their both palms were the most remarkable people they found among 2 Mn subjects, that included Russian president Vladimir Putin and Abraham Lincoln.

People with letter Xs on both hands are the strongest characters and their destiny is always the best and that never requires planning. While some people may plan for success all day long, people with “double X” palm don’t need any plan to succeed. Its just a matter of time for them. Its matter of time till their destiny automatically shapes in to unique energy cycle which makes the person “one of the greatest among the rest” before they die.

These gifted individuals are special people with whom you need to be very careful because they sense you from a far. They are doubly conscious on everything and no one can cheat them in away. You can’t lie and betray people with “X” on their both palms because their destiny is so strong and shaped such a way that the lair or the one betrays will never succeed doing so. If not find their life miserable after a while.
People with Letter X on their palms are also physically very strong. Although they may not look like the strongest all the time, they are the least prone to communicable deceases, study reveal.
They can change their life in a snap and can make a change in someone else’s life in no time.
Letter “X”  Qualities:

1. Palmistry- What does Letter X symbolize?

Based on the ancient knowledge of palmistry, we know how the palm lines and symbols are associated with our personalities and future prospects in terms of career, life, marriage, money and health.

2. Ancient books on palmistry

This popular ancient practice of foretelling the future through the study of the palm, has its roots traced back to Indian (Hindu-Vedic) astrology. Based on several scriptures around the world, its been deduced that several thousand years ago, Hindu sage Valmiki authored a book containing 567 verses.

3. Origin of palm reading

It is believed that from India, the knowledge and practice of palmistry sprawled across the world, through China, Tibet, Egypt, Persia and to several other countries in Europe.

4. Greek astrology

It is also said that it was Greece scholar Anaxagoras, who, during his time around the Indian sub-continent learned about Palmistry and later shared the knowledge with Hermes.

5. Secrets of Alexander The Great

Aristotle found the treatise regarding the matter of palmistry at one of Hermes’ altars, which he then displayed to Alexander the Great. The latter took great interest and began inspecting the character of his officers by evaluating the lines on their palms.

6. Hearsay

Though there is no affirming evidence of the same, but some say that Alexander deeply studied his own palms and strategized his life accordingly; and no one had the markings, lines and symbols like his palms.

7. Letter X on palms

Egyptian scholars suggest that Alexander The Great, had this unique marking on his palm, which was rarely found in anyone else in the world. Of late, only 3% of the entire population claimed to have the exact same marking- Letter X.

8. Research study on palmistry

In order to determine the credibility of this claim the STI University from Moscow, recently conducted a research and revealed a paper on the subject of the letter X on the palms and its potential connection to the destiny of the people who have it.

9. Sign of a great leader

The University took collected and analysed the data of over 2 million people, both living and dead; and concluded that people, who had letter X on both palms, were either leaders or highly popular individuals in the society, remembered for great things.

10. People who have/or had Letter X on their palms

Of the rare individuals, who had this marking, were great Greek Emperor Alexander The Great, President Abraham Lincoln. And, one of these people is still alive and is hard to ignore- Russian president Vladimir Putin.

11. Legacy

Those who have Letter X in both their palms, go on to be remembered for ages even after their death. And, the ones who have it only in one of their palm go on to be extremely successful and famous individuals.

12. Personality traits of people with X on their palm

These people have great sixth sense or intuition. The can sense, danger, infidelity, and disloyalty from a hands distance. Over the time they form a special energy cycle around them, which people around them simply cannot intrude.

13. #1.

Trying lying to them, and they’ll unleash the worst ever side of themselves. They might forgive, but they’ll never forget. Nothing or no one can bring them any harm; such is the power of their luck.

14. #2.

These people are sharp, intuitive, have great knowledge and memory of an elephant. They are easy to adapt and make no fuss about arrangements around them.

As Donald Trump’s Popularity Dwindles, Bernie Sanders’ Surges

 

 

 

 

The latest Harvard-Harris poll, conducted between October 14 and October 18, affirms that voters are increasingly favoring Sen. Bernie Sanders and progressivism while President Donald Trump’s favorability continues its downward spiral.

Sanders’ total favorability in this latest poll is 53 percent, and it is highest among hispanics (66 percent) and African-Americans (77 percent). His numbers dwarf other leading politicians’ on the left and right, including Hillary Clinton, Sen. Elizabeth Warren, House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, and Senate Minority Leader Charles Schumer. Donald Trump’s unfavorable ratings were the highest of any politician included at 56 percent. Only 37 percent of respondents view Sanders’ unfavorably.

The poll also asked registered Democrats if they support the party embracing progressive policies and moving further to the left. Fifty-two percent of total respondents were in favor, including 69 percent of millennials, 55 percent of women, 65 percent of Hispanics, and 55 percent of African-American Democratic Party voters.

Since Trump’s election, several polls have found that Sanders is the most popular politician in the country, including previous Harvard-Harris polls conducted earlier this year. Additionally, a July 2017 Morning Consultpoll and a survey conducted by Fox News in March 2017 found similar results. A July 2017 poll conducted by Public Policy Polling found that Sanders would defeat Trump by 13 percentage points if a general presidential election was held at that time.

 

Our reaction to the Emma Watson photo leak speaks volumes

 

 

 

 

Does anyone really believe that Emma Watson deserves to have her private photographs shared around the internet?

If someone hacked into your smartphone, stole your personal pictures, and then posted them on a social media platform, you’d be left spluttering with outrage. Why is it any different for someone who happens to act for a living?

It is being reported that Watson, along with a number of other high profile women, has had a  images stolen from her phone and leak 

Representatives for the Beauty and the Beast actress have been quick to emphasise that the leaked pictures do not show her nude and are from a costume fitting, two years ago, and that is now taking legal action.

Those who argue that Watson and her showbiz colleagues “should know better”, need a serious reality check

Regardless, it seems possible that they do capture her in a state of undress. Amanda Seyfried and Mischa Barton are also thought to be among the other hacking victims and reports suggest their images are more explicit.

The incident mirrors the so-called“fappening” of 2014, which saw naked pictures of female celebrities leaked on sharing sites such as 4Chan and Reddit.  More than 100 women were reported to have had their personal Apple iCloudaccounts hacked, including Jennifer Lawrence, Rihanna, Kim Kardashian and Downton Abbey actress Jessica Brown Findlay.

In the wake of that mass attack, Lawrence called the hack a “sex crime” and said that anyone who looked at them had committed a “sexual offence” and should “cower with shame”.

Spot on. Those who argue that Watson and her showbiz colleagues “should know better” than to have anything on their digital devices they wouldn’t be happy for the rest of the world to see, need a serious reality check.

An oft used analogy is that you wouldn’t leave your house unlocked. That if you park your Ferrari in a crime-ridden area and it gets broken into, then you haven’t got a leg to stand on. Simply, you are putting something of high value somewhere unsafe – in the full knowledge that it’s risky.

Which isn’t all that unlike saying that a woman who wears a short skirt and has a couple of vodkas, only has herself to blame if she’s groped, or worse. The problem with that argument, is that in this case the “object” of high value isn’t a car or house – it’s a woman (only one man was targeted in the 2014 hack; Nick Hogan).

The issue is not that we don’t understand our phones, it’s that we don’t understand the concept of consent

Look, we know that the internet is unsafe and that our smart devices probably aren’t as secure as we think. Only this month, we learnt via Wikileaks that the CIA’s “Weeping Angel” programme provided agency hackers with access to Samsung Smart TV.

But we do have a reasonable expectation of privacy and when criminals (for that’s what they are) hack into our phone and steal (for that’s what they have done) information, the onus should not be placed on the victim not to have had such material in the first place.

Even in cases of revenge porn, where someone has sent their private images to another person, who has then shared them around – the victim is not to blame. The issue is not that we don’t understand our phones, it’s that we don’t understand the concept of consent.

In the wake of the 2014 hack – and after the initial anger on behalf of stars such as Lawrence – the mood changed. When photos of Kim Kardashian were leaked, sympathy was in short supply. This was, after all, the woman who made her name via a sex tape and in numerous subsequent semi-naked selfies. We’d seen it all before.

Whatever the nature of the images stolen from Watson, there will no doubt be some people who put forward this line of thinking. Earlier this month, the 26-year-old posed for Vanity Fair in a shoot that was widely referred to as ‘topless’ but which was, in fact, less revealing than many bikinis. She was called a “hypocrite” for daring to promote the values of gender equality on the one hand, yet show her body in a fashion shoot on the other.

Writer and radio presenter Julia Hartley-Brewer tweeted “Emma Watson: ‘Feminism, feminism… gender wage gap… why oh why am I not taken seriously… feminism… oh, and here are my tits!’”

View image 

View image on Twitter

[WARNING]: WOMEN WITH THIS ZODIAC SIGN ARE NOT ORDINARY, MEN GET INSTANTLY ADDICTED TO THEM

 

 

 

 

 

All women have the beauty and sensuality to drive men crazy, but according to astrologist’s women in this Zodiac sign in particular have the power to lure any man with their magnetism. This causes an addiction similar to a drug. Her enchanting charm makes every man crazy. Women in this Zodiac sign are compared with goddesses and angels, a true epitome of beauty. Her psychic abilities allow her to uncover any mask anyone is holding in front of her. Are you this mysterious sign?

IT’S IMPOSSIBLE NOT TO LOVE HER

Her love is very mysterious, and she can lure any man and enchant him with her beauty. This intense and ultra feminine sign is twelfth in the Zodiac of the horoscope ruled by the planet Neptune and brings feminine energy to women in Pisces.

Her love can be so intoxicating and intense that causes her to be bitter-sweet at times. Even if you parted ways with her, she will always be in the back of your mind as the one who got away. Her easygoing spirit makes her flow with the water. When she looks in your eyes, you freeze and forget what’s happening around you.

SHE’S AN OLD SOUL AND HAS BEEN ON THIS PLANET BEFORE

She bares deep wisdom and understands her partners to another capacity which distinguishes her from all the other Zodiac signs. If you’re in this sign the you certainly understand this better than anyone. She has an ability to understand without hearing an explanation and loves unconditionally, making it impossible to not be addicted to her.

SHE’S A FREE SPIRITED SEDUCTRESS

She’s known to act more and speak less. Pisces women generally are attracted to men who appear strong on the outside. She often does small seductive things that drives men crazy, from letting her hair down from a ponytail to touching someones hand unexpectedly at a party. These things make men addicted slowly to her. While she does like a long and steady relationship, Pisces women know to have short romantic flings and affairs from time to time. It’s really hard for them to avoid this because romance is in their soul.

MATERIAL THINGS MEAN NOTHING TO HER

Pisces is the final sign in the Zodiac and represents the highest conscious state of human evolution. Her free spirit transcends the illusion of the material world and teaches us to unify the greater things in life. Similar to the serpent biting its own tail, which represents the infinite spiritual life, Pisces represents the same thing.

It unifies all of the characteristics of the 11 Zodiac signs that come before it,which makes Pisces a cocktail of all of the Zodiac signs. One trait that distinguishes the Pisces woman is her level of sensitivity and having learned the lessons of all 11 signs (and hers as well, too).  Being eternally romantic is in their nature. Which means they never fall short in the romantic department because it’s vital for them. She loves to be wined and dined. Her old soul loves to be taken out to the theater or ballet.

Straight People Don’t Exist, New Research Says

 

 

 

 

A recent study published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology undermines long held beliefs about heteronormative sexual orientation. The study looks at gender expression in women and measures their physiological response viewing a variety of pornographic material. It found that, regardless of how women self report their sexuality, their bodies respond positively to both hetero- and homosexual sex. Meaning, women’s sexuality is complex and not within the bounds of strict hetero- or homosexuality.

Ritch C. Savin-Williams is the Director of Developmental Psychology and the Director of the Sex and Gender Lab in the Department of Human Development at Cornell University. The study occurred in his lab and, he tells me, is part of a much larger research project he and his fellow researchers are doing to uncover true human sexuality through physiological queues.

We’re trying to get at the way people really ar

“It’s basically a study that assesses sexual orientation by looking at the eyes and whether they dilate or not. You can’t control your eye dilation. Essentially, that’s what the whole project attempts to get at, another way of assessing sexuality without relying on self report. Another way of course is genital arousal, but that gets a little invasive.”

Read More: The Girls Who Use Grindr

Following popular logic, sexuality is thought of as straight or gay. Bisexuality has only recently begun to be taken seriously. The idea of separate, static, and neatly defined sexual orientations is woven into the fabric of American society and is part of our cultural conception of gender itself; real men are masculine and attracted to women.

The results of Savin-Williams’ study challenges deeply held cultural beliefs about sexuality, but he’s not surprised to find that sexuality is more complex than gay and straight. “I’m certainly not surprised,” he says. “We’re trying to get at the way people really are. Sometimes, it seems people are one way but believe they have to report themselves in another way, and that’s not good.”

Men have gotten so much cultural crap put on them that even if a man does have some sexual attraction to guys, they would never say it.

Savin-Williams explains that the motivation for individuals to inaccurately self report their desire is a consequence of restrictive social influence: the norms that determine how individuals are perceived and treated. He’s been working on an idea that he calls the mostly straight male. “We’ve always recognized mostly straight women, that is, women who mostly are straight but if the right woman comes along,well maybe she’ll try it out. We used to think that was only a female phenomenon.”

Image via Stocksy.

“We show straight men a picture of a woman masturbating and they respond just like a straight guy, but then you also show them a guy masturbating and their eyes dilate a little bit. So we’re actually able to show physiologically that all guys are not either gay, straight, or bi.” The various parts of Savin-Williams’ study collectively address sexuality in both men and women, showing that boring ideas, such as that people are either 100 percent straight or gay, don’t endure under objective, scientific scrutiny.

“There are aspects [of male sexuality] along a continuum, just as we have always recognized with women. Men have gotten so much cultural crap put on them that even if a man does have some sexual attraction to guys, they would never say it.”

From the suffragettes of the 19th century, to the various social justice movements that arose in the mid twentieth, political activists have sought to undo structural inequality in the United States. Even cultural norms that are seemingly innocuous can play a significant role in maintaining gender inequity. Through this large study on human sexuality, Savin-Williams and his fellow researchers aim to alter the idea of those norms as scientifically factual.

The self esteem of lesbian women tends to be higher than that of straight women.

“I do see this loosening of the boundaries,” he says. “I think that’s happening for both sexes. It’s probably a good thing, because it gives kids growing up more diversity, more options, so they don’t feel like they have to fit in [at all costs]. Straight women and straight men feel much more comfortable than ever before in going into the realm of the other sex in terms of gender role and how they act.”

Even though an individual with an LGBT gender or sexual identity may endure undue social discrimination and prejudice, from the perspective of one’s humanity, it may be a privilege to be queer, because you’ve been given cause to question the norms that govern identity in a way heterosexual, cisgender individuals may not have. Repressive gender culture might cause material harm to people who fall closer to the queer part of the continuum, but those boundaries limit everybody by disallowing the individual to explore the depth, breadth, and scope of their humanity.

10 Most Dangerous Countries In The World That Are Not Safe For Women

 

 

 

Women are still not safe in these most dangerous countries of the world.The security of our women is still a big issue even though the world has progressed.  Every day women are raped, becomes a part of human trafficking and domestic violence in some parts of these dangerous countries.

 

Here we have noted down some of the most dangerous countries in the world that are not safe for women! I bet you never knew about them!

1.Colombia.

This is probably the most dangerous country as it has the highest rate of acid attacks on women and most of them don’t even get justice. There were around 45,000 cases of domestic violence reported in 2015.

Dangerous countries that are not safe for women
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2.Afganistan

Around 87% of the female population in this country is illiterate and around 70%-80% female is forced into early marriage all between the ages of 15-19 years. It has high domestic violence cases with a maternal mortality ratio of 400 in 100,000.

Dangerous countries that are not safe for women
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3.India

India has the world’s largest population but still, it’s not safe for women due to high rates of gang rapes, domestic violence and human trafficking and female infanticides.  As per the stats, there are more than 50 million cases of female infanticide in last 30 years.

Dangerous countries that are not safe for women
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4.The Democratic Republic of Congo

According to research Congo has the worst records of gender-based violence. Approximately around 1.150 females are raped every day that goes to 420,000 a year. Health outcomes are inadequate too, with 57 percent of pregnant females reported to be anemic.

Dangerous countries that are not safe for women
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5.Somalia

It is a country where they lack law and orders and sexual harassment, high maternal mortality, child marriage and female genital mutilation are an everyday concern.

Dangerous countries that are not safe for women
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6.Pakistan

Early age and forced marriage, acid attacks and punishment by stoning are the main concern of this country for the females. It’s not safe for women here as more than 1,000 females are victims of ‘honour killings’ each year, and 90% face domestic violence.

Dangerous countries that are not safe for women
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7.Kenya

The females of this country only receive a small part of the income they generate in spite of being the country with a high rate of agricultural production. Educational prospects for girls are dreadful, as they are taught at an inferior level to their counterparts. HIV is a common problem for a woman there as they don’t have any control over their private life.

Dangerous countries that are not safe for women
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8.Brazil

A research shows that every 15 seconds a female is sexually assaulted and a woman is murdered every 2 hours. Females are not allowed to make a reproductive choice as its criminal code bans abortions except in cases of rape, or where it is physically dangerous to have the baby. Women who go against and have an abortion can be jailed for 3 years.

Dangerous countries that are not safe for women
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9.Egypt

Sexual assault and harassment are so common there that even the visitors may have experienced it. Females are ignored when it comes to their rights to marriage, divorce, child custody, and inheritance.

Dangerous countries that are not safe for women
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10.Mexico

There were 4,000 cases of women disappearing in 2011-2012. Women are let down by the legal system, which does not protect against domestic and sexual violence.

Dangerous countries that are not safe for women